PERU

GENERAL DATA

Poverty rate:

19%

out of the total population

MIGRATION DATA

  • Sending country: About 1.7 million Peruvians reside abroad. The main destinations are the US (50%), Chile (21%), Argentina (10%), Spain (9%), Italy (4.1%) and Japan (2.3)%.

  • Destination country: About 153,000 immigrants reside in Peru. The main countries of origin are Venezuela (24.6%), Colombia (15.3%), Spain (7.3%), the US (6.8%), Ecuador (5.3%), Argentina (5.2%), Chile (4.7%), Brazil (4.2%), China (3.7%), and Bolivia (3.5%). 

  • Transit country: Peru is used by migrants in transit en route to the Southern Cone and by migrants in transit en route north to the Central America-Mexico-US migratory corridor.

  • Host country for refugees: More than 482,500 Venezuelans have requested asylum. This makes Peru the first country to host Venezuelans in need of international protection and the second destination for Venezuelan refugees and migrants worldwide. 435,000 Venezuelans have obtained the Temporary Residence Permit, 52,000 are pending, and only 1,200 Venezuelans have obtained refugee status between 2016-2019.

  • Country receiving national deportees: Peruvian deportees are coming mainly from the US. 

35,595

NUMBER OF DEATHS

949,670

REGISTERED CASES

IMPACT BY COVID-19

* Weekly data update

DATE: NOVEMBER 23, 2020

STATE MEASURES

  • The creation of “Special Brigades against Criminal Migration” was announced to monitor the migrant population as it is strongly associated with national insecurity.

  • According to the CEPR website, on July 22, the online system for submitting refugee applications was reactivated so that they can generate a Virtual Work Authorization. Likewise, due to the pandemic, refugee applicant cards will be valid until December 31, 2020, and CEPR transactions will be fulfilled virtually until further notice. The refugee applicant card is not a document recognized by the health system, only the immigration card is accepted for that purpose, according to Legislative Decree No. 1164 (only final complementary provision). Despite this, by the Emergency Decree No. 017-2019, access to the health system is allowed free of charge, without consideration of documentation. 

  • The National Superintendency of Migration-Migrations, authorized the rescheduling of appointments related to the procedures and services it provides; authorized the suspension of administrative deadlines and suspended the fine for exceeding length of stay restrictions during the state of emergency; it suspended for 30 days the terms of administrative procedures and services under its charge; and extended the validity of temporary and resident immigration status during the state of emergency (Superintendency Resolution No. 000104-2020). The suspension of terms of the administrative procedures was extended for an additional 15 days as of April 29 (Superintendency Resolution No. 000120-2020-MIGRATIONS).

  • On May 29, plans were put into motion for the creation of a virtual platform for a “Virtual Migration Agency” and a “Virtual Migration Board.” There was also a resumption of the suspended terms of the procedures to change immigration status, extend residency, request a special travel permit, to enter into contracts and to work, the payment and exceptions of the Annual Foreign Resident Tax, and administrative resources.

  • On May 7, Migration officials authorized “the use of Certificates granted to foreign citizens who, having carried out various procedures, did not manage to obtain an immigration card or PTP due to the compulsory social isolation measures decreed within the framework of the COVID-19 Health Emergency.” It was established that the certificates, which are provisional documents that replace the card and can be managed and printed directly with the entry of user data in the virtual Migration platform, would be valid for the duration of the health emergency until delivery of the official card (Superintendency Resolution No. 000121-2020-MIGRATIONS).

  • In addition to the border control reinforcement, especially with its border with Ecuador, the Protocol for the implementation of the measures within the State of National Emergency establishes that in the event of illegal entry being detected during the temporary closure of the borders, they will proceed with the expulsion of the persons (Ministerial Resolution No. 309-2020-IN). 

  • On March 30, the bill 4958/2020-CR was presented. This bill seeks to repatriate foreign citizens with migratory status of humanitarian residence, temporary permit or extraordinary - provisional- work permit, “whose health is exposed to risks, or that the risk can be transferred to other people, due to health emergency situations ”.

  • On May 13, bill 5185/2020-CR was taken up to “declare of national interest and public need the hiring of health professionals of foreign nationality who reside for more than 1 year continuously […] in order to cover the deficit of health personnel across different specialties and to be able to mitigate the effects generated by the Covid-19 pandemic ”.

  • On May 25, bill 5349/2020-CR was presented with the objective that the Peruvian State “revoke the United Nations Global Compact for Safe, Orderly and Regular Migration” and the Temporary Permanency Permits (PTP ), rendering them without effect within 15 days of the passage of the law. The project also established that foreigners who have been expelled or withdrawn from the national territory for having entered irregularly and who re-enter in that way, will be sentenced to four to five years of imprisonment. On June 25, bill 5625/2020-CR was presented, which also proposed a custodial sentence of between four and eight years for this conduct.

  • On May 26, bill 5358/2020-CR was presented to establish an internal return process, necessitated by the declaration of national emergency, internal conflicts, natural disasters, sanitary situations, or other serious circumstances, and to establish conditions for the incorporation of internal migrants into the economically active population.

  • The Ombudsman's Office asked in a press release that measures to mitigate the impact of the coronavirus should include foreigners in vulnerable situations. In its statement, it made reference to Venezuelan migrants. 

  • So far, no explicit measures have been taken to support Peruvian migrants abroad.

  • The Ministry of Foreign Affairs announced that it was coordinating a possible benefit for around 60,000 Venezuelan migrants. This would be "to assist the most vulnerable but it will be on a smaller scale than the one granted to Peruvian families." However, the money would come from the international community and it would reach a total amount of 3 millions of dollars. 

  • The Venezuelan ambassador in Lima appointed by Juan Guaidó reported that the emergency services phone operators available in the country to deal with possible cases of COVID-19 were asking Venezuelan people for their DNI number (identity card). This document is issued only for nationals. However, it was reported that through good bureaucratic processes the situation had been remedied.

  • On April 12, the creation of the Covid-Special Service during the pandemic was ordered. It was established that foreign professionals could also participate in it (Urgent Decree No. 037-2020).

  • On April 21, the Administrating Institutions of Health Insurance Funds of Comprehensive Health Insurance were empowered to “exceptionally and temporarily affiliate Peruvian and foreign persons who are in the territory and find themselves without health insurance, residents or not, to the national subsidized healthcare regime, provided that they are diagnosed or suspected of being diagnosed with coronavirus.” By the same norm, it is foreseen that foreigners could access healthcare using their immigration card, passport, PTP, refugee applicant card, or other document that allows to prove their identity (Legislative Decree No. 1466).

  • In response to a recommendation from the Ombudsman's Office, the National Superintendency of Labor Inspection has promised to adapt its web application so that people can make labor complaints with identification documents other than the ID that migrants possess, and has offered to receive labor complaints from foreigners through their online platform (Mesa de Partes Virtual).

  • Between March 16 and May 7, the Ombudsman's Office carried out 194 cases on behalf of the Venezuelan population, of which 165 were consultations and the majority originated in Lima and La Libertad.

  • On April 14, for humanitarian reasons and in coordination with regional governments, the interprovincial transportation of passengers outside of their usual area of residence or usual place of work was authorized exceptionally (Supreme Decree 068-2020-PCM). The Ombudsman's Office criticized that, unlike the case of Peruvians stranded abroad in which the State assumed all the costs of transportation, accommodation, food and health, in the case of internal returnees, these costs were only partially assumed by the government when there was deemed situations of vulnerability.

*For more detail go to the digital archive that we created:

In mid-March 2020, nearly every country on the continent declared a health emergency. These countries closed their borders and adopted a series of exceptional measures, arguing that forced immobility as a  solution to contain the virus. Following the shutdown of borders,  more than 30 researchers from the Americas, interested in analyzing the migratory question politically, organized virtually and began to consider the particular situation of millions of migrants, women, men, children and adolescents, from the continent and/or from other latitudes, all of whom are mobile and in transit.

Original Concept: Soledad Álvarez Velasco, University of Houston

General Coordination:Soledad Álvarez Velasco, University of Houston & Ulla D. Berg, Rutgers University

Research, Systematization and Development of Contents: Soledad Álvarez Velasco, University of Houston;  Ulla D. Berg, Rutgers University; Lucía Pérez-Martínez, FLACSO-Ecuador; Mónica Salmon, New School for Social Research; Sebastián León,  Rutgers University.

Coordination polyphonic map: Iréri Ceja Cárdenas: Museo Nacional/ Universidad Federal de Rio de Janeiro

Project Advisor: Nicholas De Genova, Universidad of Houston.

 

Translation team Spanish - English: 

Soledad Álvarez Velasco, Mónica Salmón, Ulla Berg, Luin Goldring, Tanya Basok, Ingrid Carlson, Gabrielle Cabrera.

Translation team Spanish - Portuguese: 

Iréri Ceja, Gustavo Dias, Gislene Santos, Elisa Colares, Handerson Joseph, Caio Fernandes, María Villarreal.

Website Design and Development:  ACHU! Studio; Francisco Hurtado Caicedo, Social Observatory of Ecuador

Photography: David Gustafsson y Cynthia Briones.

Video: David Gustafsson.

Some of the researchers of this project are members of these CLACSO Working Groups

English translation and proofreading by Gabrielle Cabrera, Rutgers University.

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